Urology Research & Practice
Original Article

Muscle-invasive bladder and urethral cancer recurrence after surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma: A review of 305 patients


Department of Urology, Sohar Hospital, Ministry of Health, Sultanate of Oman, Sohar, Oman


Department of Urology, Mansoura University, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura, Egypt


Department of Urology, Kafr El Sheikh University Faculty of Medicine, Kafr El Sheikh, Egypt

Urol Res Pract 2018; 44: 213-220
DOI: 10.5152/tud.2018.19677
Read: 1297 Downloads: 845 Published: 25 July 2019



Objective: Bladder cancer recurrence after management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a common disease. Although the incidence and risk factors for the development of noninvasive bladder tumor have been reported in many series, rare studies have reported on muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and its urethral recurrence. We aimed to report the incidence, risk factors and survival rate for the development of MIBC and urethral tumors after surgical management of UTUC.


Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients who were surgically treated for UTUC from 1983 to 2013. The tumor was categorized according to the 1997 TNM staging and the 3-tiered WHO grading systems. The primary endpoint of this study was the occurrence of any post-treatment MIBC and its urethral recurrences. We studied the possible risk factors that may contribute to the development of such pathology as well as the prognosis of this pathology.


Results: A total of 297 patients were eligible for analysis. Intravesical tumor recurrence was observed in 139 (46.8%) patients and radical cystectomy was warranted for 36 patients (MIBC or multicentric bladder recurrence). Twenty-seven patients were fit for surgery with ileal loop conduit was the urinary diversion for the majority, and others received radiotherapy. Ureteral tumor was the only statistically significant risk factor (p=0.001) and the incidence increased as the ureteral tumors became more distal (p=0.01). Occurrence of invasive or multicenteric bladder recurrence was a predictor for local, urethral recurrence and distant metastasis (p=0.016, 0.0001 and 0.01 respectively). Seven patients had urethral urothelial carcinoma; 5 were diagnosed at the time of cystectomy and 2 were discovered later (1 and 3 years after cystectomy).


Conclusion: MIBC is a relatively uncommon (6%) post UTUC, and ureteral tumors, especially distal in location, are the independent risk factor. Extended surveillance for those patients is needed. Urethral cancer recurrence is rare (2%); most cases are localized in the posterior urethra, they are noninvasive, and may develop even after cystectomy.


Cite this article as: Elawdy MM, Osman Y, Taha DE, El-halwagy S. Muscle-invasive bladder and urethral cancer recurrence after surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma: A review of 305 patients. Turk J Urol 2018; 44(3): 213-20.

EISSN 2980-1478