Urology Research & Practice
UROONCOLOGY - Original Article

Urothelial Malignancy After Normal Hematuria Clinic Investigations: Does Non-visible Hematuria Need Reinvestigation?


University Hospital of Wales, Urology, Cardiff, UK


Swansea Bay University Health Board, Port Talbot, Neath Port Talbot, UK


Salisbury District Hospital, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK

Urol Res Pract 2024; 50: 102-106
DOI: 10.5152/tud.2024.23025
Read: 168 Downloads: 64 Published: 30 May 2024

Objective: Hematuria is the most common referral to Urology. Most initial evaluations are normal; however there are few medium- to long-term studies about these patients after they are discharged.

Methods: This study was a retrospective observational case–control study. Patients with normal initial investigations in our hematuria clinic (HC) over a 2-year period in 2012-2013 were included. We reviewed the electronic records of patients choosing January 1, 2021, as our reference date providing a median follow-up of 99 months. The primary aim of this study was to assess the missed urothelial malignancy (UM) rate in this cohort and also the UM rate in those re-referred to the HC.

Results: The study included 573 patients of whom 24.6% (141/573) were re-referred to urology during the study period. The overall missed UM cancer rate was 0.5% and 0.2% died as a result in this follow-up period. The UM cancer rate in those re-referred was 4.3% and of those re-referred with visible hematuria (VH) the UM cancer rate was 5.7%. No patients re-referred with non-visible VH (NVH) were diagnosed with UM. The only urological death during this time was due to UM.

Conclusion: All urological malignancy and mortality remain very low even at mediumto long-term follow-up after an initial normal HC investigation. In this study, no patients with recurrent NVH developed UM; therefore, recurrent NVH is unlikely to need reinvestigation. The risk of UM in those re-referred with VH is low but more substantial and warrants reinvestigation, which should include computed tomography urogram imaging.

Cite this article as: Thompson A, James B, David R, et al. Urothelial malignancy after normal hematuria clinic investigations: Does non-visible hematuria need re-investigation? Urol Res Pract. 2024;50(2):102-106.

EISSN 2980-1478