Urology Research & Practice
Review

What are the currently available and in development molecular markers for bladder cancer? Will they prove to be useful in the future?

1.

Department of Urology, Wrexham Maelor Hospital, Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, Wrexham, Wales, United Kingdom

2.

Department of Urology, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Medicine, Çanakkale, Turkey

3.

Milton Keynes Hospital, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom

Urol Res Pract 2014; 40: 228-232
DOI: 10.5152/tud.2014.60973
Read: 1411 Downloads: 1014 Published: 25 July 2019

Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma is the 9th most common cancer worldwide. Most urothelial tumors are non-muscle invasive on presentation. However, two-thirds of non-invasive bladder cancers will eventually recur with a 25% risk of progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Tumor stage, histological grade and pathological invasion of blood vessels and lymphatic tissue are the main indicators for urothelial cancer prognosis. The gold standard for diagnosing bladder cancer is conventional white-light cystoscopy and biopsy. Urine cytology is a highly specific, sensitive test for high-grade tumors or carcinoma in situ (CIS). Urinary NMP22 has an overall sensitivity and specificity for detecting bladder cancer of 49% and 87%, respectively. However, there are false-positive results in the presence of urinary tract infection or hematuria. The detection of specific gene mutations related to urothelial cancers has been studied and employed to reproduce markers helpful for diagnosis. According to current studies, molecular markers can be used to predict tumor recurrence. From a prognostic point of view, new molecular markers have yet to be established as reliable indicators of tumor aggressiveness. We aimed to review the molecular markers with possible prognostic significance that have been discussed in the literature. This review examined the literature for various molecular markers under development for bladder cancer in an attempt to optimize patient care and reduce the costs of treating these patients.

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