Urology Research & Practice
GENERAL UROLOGY - Original Article

Exploring the Impact of Family History, Demographics and Ecological Factors on Urolithiasis Prevalence: Insights from a Nationwide Study


Urology and Nephrology Research Center, Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Department of Urology, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran


Research center for Evidence-Based Medicine, Iranian EBM Center: A Joanna Briggs Institute Center of Excellence, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

Urol Res Pract 2024; 50: 115-120
DOI: 10.5152/tud.2024.23221
Read: 150 Downloads: 68 Published: 16 April 2024

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the potential risk factors of lifetime urolithiasis occurrence on a nationwide scale in Iran.

Methods: All data regarding urinary stone events were extracted from the cross-sectional Iran National Stone Survey (INSS) study, and the possible determinants of urolithiasis incidence were evaluated.

Results: Our multivariable logistic regression suggested that while older age at presentation, male sex, and a positive family history of urolithiasis in either of the patient’s parents or siblings were all significantly associated with an increased odds of lifetime urolithiasis occurrence (all P < .001), a positive family history in one’s sister (odds ratio; OR=5.56) or brother (OR=4.70) were the most significant predictors. Moreover, belonging to Baluch ethnicity (i.e., an ethnical group indigenous to the south eastern regions of Iran) and residing in regions with higher water hardness (i.e., total concentration of dissolved minerals) were also associated with an increased odds of urolithiasis occurrence (P < .001 and P=.023, respectively). Conversely, living in regions with higher mean humidity decreased the chances of developing a urinary stone event during one’s lifetime (OR=0.62, P < .001).

Conclusion: Our results indicated that a constellation of demographic, ecological, and familial risk factors are associated with an elevated risk of developing urinary stones during one’s lifetime. These findings can assist in implementing novel regional healthcare policies, considering the specific demographic and ecological characteristics. They also support tailoring personalized preventive strategies, particularly for individuals with multiple nonmodifiable risk factors.

Cite this article as: Basiri A, Hossein Kashi A, Zahir M, et al. Exploring the impact of family history, demographics and ecological factors on urolithiasis prevalence: Insights from a nationwide study. Urol Res Pract. 2024;50(2):115-120.

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